Skip to content
 

Endnotes


[1] The earliest artistic heritage of this region comes from Native Americans. Special Collections holds some primary documents and printed materials pertaining to Pacific Northwest Native American artists and scholars who have studied that field. Large holdings of pre- and post-contact visual sources can be found elsewhere: at the Burke Museum on the University of Washington campus, in the collection of the Seattle Art Museum, in the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, and in British Columbia, Canada, at the B.C. Archives, Royal B.C. Museum and the Museum of Anthropology at the University of B.C.

[2] Charles W. Smith, Check-List of Books and Pamphlets Relating to the Pacific Northwest. (Olympia, Wash.: E. L. Boardman, Public Printer, 1909), 3.

[3] Charles W. Smith, address, October 28, 1939. Also reprinted in University of Washington Libraries, The Dictionary Catalog of the Pacific Northwest Collection of the University of Washington Libraries, Seattle, vol. 1 (Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1972), citing Smith’s 1938 presentation to the 60th annual conference of the American Library Association.

[4] Plate 23. See John Frazier Henry, Early Maritime Artists of the Pacific Northwest Coast, 1741-1841, pages 146-147 for comparison. The original de Vancy drawing is housed in the Service Historique de la Marine in Vincennes, France.

[5] Robert Monroe (past Head of Special Collections) expanded on Charles W. Smith's description of the exploration collection when he said, “Actually, the collection’s base is broader than Smith suggested, for the assembly of a virtually complete collection of ‘early maritime voyages to the Northwest Coast’ in nearly all editions and in nearly all languages in which they were published, today provides a basis for the study of Eighteenth Century exploration of the whole Pacific Ocean area, and the consequent dissemination of geographical knowledge.” The Dictionary Catalog of the Pacific Northwest Collection of the University of Washington Libraries, Seattle, vii.

[6] J. C. Beaglehole, ed., The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery, vol. 3, part 2 (Cambridge: Published for the Hakluyt Society at the University Press, 1967), 1507. Letter from the Admiralty to Cook, dated 24th of June 1776.

[7] Rüdiger Joppien, 1946 and Bernard Smith, The Art of Captain Cook's Voyages, vol. 3: The voyage of the Resolution and Discovery 1776-1780 (New Haven: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 1988), 162 in volume 3, part 2. The quote from Sir Joseph Banks, advocate and organizer of publishing Cook’s expedition account, to a Parisian bookseller. See footnote 13 in Joppien volume above.

[8] Ibid., 169 in vol. 3, part 2. See footnote 98 in Joppien for original French excerpt, or see Jean-François de Galaup La Pérouse, comte de, 1741-1788, Voyage De La Pérouse Autour Du Monde, Publié Conformément Au Décret Du 22 Avril 1797, Et Rédige Par M.L.A. Milet-Mureau (Paris: Imprimerie de la République, an V., 1797), volume 1, xv-xvi.

[9] John Robson, The Captain Cook Encyclopedia (London: Chatham Publishing, 2004), 240 under entry “Webber, John”.

[10] James Cook, 1728-1779, A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Undertaken, by the Command of His Majesty, for Making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere, to Determine the Position and Extent of the West Side of North America; Its Distance from Asia; and the Practicability of a Northern Passage to Europe. Performed under the Direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in His Majesty's Ships the Resolution and Discovery, in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780. Vol I and II Written by Captain James Cook, F.R.S. Vol. III by Captain James King, L.L.D. And F.R.S. Illustrated with Maps and Charts, from the Original Drawings Made by Lieut. Henry Roberts...With a Great Variety of Portraits...Views...And Historical Representations..Drawn by Mr. Webber...Published by Order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 3 plus folio vols. (London: Printed by W. and A. Strahan, for G. Nicol, & T. Cadell, 1784), volume 2, p. 456. Entry 19th August 1778.

[11]Ibid., volume 2, p. 458. Entry 19th August 1778.

[12] Jean-François de Galaup La Pérouse, comte de, 1741-1788, A Voyage Round the World : Performed in the Years 1785, 1786, 1787 and 1788, by the Boussole and Astrolabe, under the Command of J.F.G. De La Pérouse : Published by Order of the National Assembly under the Superintendence of L.A. Milet-Mureau ... Translated from the French, vol. 3 (London: Printed by S. Hamilton for G.G. and J. Robinson and T. Payne, 1799), 38. Instructions to La Pérouse, Part 3: Operations respecting Astronomy, Geography, Navigation, Physics, and the different branches of Natural History.

[13] John Frazier Henry, Early Maritime Artists of the Pacific Northwest Coast, 1741-1841, 145.

[14] Edith A. Standen, "The Mistress & the Widow," The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 25, no. 5 (1967). See figure 8.

[15] Henry, Early Maritime Artists of the Pacific Northwest Coast, 1741-1841 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1984), 140.

[16] La Pérouse, A Voyage Round the World : Performed in the Years 1785, 1786, 1787 and 1788, by the Boussole and Astrolabe, under the Command of J.F.G. De La Pérouse : Published by Order of the National Assembly under the Superintendence of L.A. Milet-Mureau ... Translated from the French, volume 2, 135-40.

[17] George Vancouver, 1757-1798, A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World; in Which the Coast of North-West America Has Been Carefully Examined and Accurately Surveyed. Undertaken His Majesty's Command, Principally with a View to Ascertain the Existence of Any Navigable Communication between the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans; and Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, and 1795, in the Discovery Sloop of War, and Armed Tender Chatham, under the Command of Captain George Vancouver, 3 vols. (London: Printed for G. G. and J. Robinson [etc.], 1798), xxix.

[18] Ibid., xiv.

[19] Andrew David, Vancouver's Artists (Burnaby, B.C. : Vancouver Conference on Exploration and Discovery, Dept. of History, Simon Fraser University, 1991), 10.

[20] Otto von Kotzebue, 1787-1846, A Voyage of Discovery, into the South Sea and Beering's Straits, for the Purpose of Exploring a North-East Passage, Undertaken in the Years 1815-1818, at the Expense of His Highness ... Count Romanzoff,in the Ship Rurick, under the Command of the Lieutenant in the Russian Imperial Navy, Otto Von Kotzebue , 3 vols. (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1821), 24 in volume 1. The excerpt comes from an introduction by Ivan Fedorovitch Krusenstern, Russian Lieutenant-Captain who led expeditions in 1803 – 1806, significantly being the Russian ships to circumnavigate the globe.

[21] Harry M. Majors, "Science and Exploration on the Northwest Coast of North America: 1542-1841," (Seattle: 1969), 660.

[22] Adelbert von Chamisso, A Voyage around the World with the Romanzov Exploring Expedition in the Years 1815-1818 in the Brig Rurik, Captain Otto Von Kotzebue / by Adelbert Von Chamisso ; Translated and Edited by Henry Kratz, (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986), 20.

[23] Henry, Early Maritime Artists of the Pacific Northwest Coast, 1741-1841, 29.

[24] Chamisso, A Voyage around the World with the Romanzov Exploring Expedition in the Years 1815-1818 in the Brig Rurik, Captain Otto Von Kotzebue / by Adelbert Von Chamisso ; Translated and Edited by Henry Kratz, 234.

[25] F. P. Litke, A Voyage around the World, 1826-1829 : Volume 1, to Russian America and Siberia / by Frederic Litke ; Translated from the French Edition by Renee Marshall ; Supplemented with a Parallel Account by E.H. Baron Von Kittlitz, Translated from the German, with an Introduction, by Joan Moessner ; Edited by Richard A. Pierce, (Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, 1987), x.

[26] Ibid., xi.

[27] Ibid., 122. This excerpt is from an introductory section to Kittlitz.

[28] F. P. graf Litke, Voyage Autour Du Monde, 1826-1829, (Amsterdam, New York: Da Capo Press, 1971), 1. See asterisked comment.

[29] Senator John P. Hale of New Hampshire, opposing appropriation in 1861 for distributions of duplicates from the government’s scientific collections. Quotation found in Daniel Carl Haskell, The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, and Its Publications, 1844-1874 (New York: The New York Public Library, 1942), 23.

[30]Ibid. Quote from Simon Cameron during the same debate.

[31] Charles Wilkes, 1798-1877, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842., 1845 edition, Philadelphia. Printed from original "official" 1844 Philadelphia publication plates ed., 5 vols. (Philadephia: Lea and Blanchard, 1845), 299, volume 4. Illustration appears on page 338, volume 4.

[32] Haskell, The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, and Its Publications, 1844-1874, 9. Excerpt originally comes from 29. Cong., 1. See. Senate doc. 405, p. 7.

[33] Gary Allen Hood, After Lewis & Clark : The Forces of Change, 1806-1871 (Tulsa, Okla. : Gilcrease Museum, 2006), 42.

[34] The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) did not have an artist.

[35] Paul Kane, Paul Kane's Frontier; Including Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, by Paul Kane. Edited with a Biographical Introd. And a Catalogue Raisonne by J. Russell Harper (Austin: Published for the Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, and the National Gallery of Canada by the University of Texas Press, 1971), xi.

[36] Letter of August 7, 1847 to Captain Henry J. Warre from the Office of the Right Honorable Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Lord Palmerston, giving permission for Warre to publish his lithographs with an account of his journey. (Public Archives of Canada, Ottowa. H. J. Warre Journal. W.O. 1. vol 558, pp. 795-798. Microfilm B-3077).

[37] Letter from Lord Metcalf to Sir Richard Downes Jackson, May 2, 1845. (Public Archives of Canada, Ottowa. H. J. Warre Journal. W.O. 1. vol 552, pp. 127-130. Microfilm B-3074).

[38] Kane, Paul Kane's Frontier; Including Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, by Paul Kane. Edited with a Biographical Introd. And a Catalogue Raisonne by J. Russell Harper, 28. Quotation comes from Hugh Scobie, journalist, British Colonist. Commentary from November 17, 1848.

[39] Ibid., 51. Kane’s opening line in preface to his Wanderings of an Artist.

[40] Ibid., 15.

[41]United States. War Dept., Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853-[6], Ex. doc. (United States. Congress. House) ; 36th Congress, 1st session, no. 56 Ex. doc. (United States. Congress. House) ; 33rd Congress, 2nd session, no. 91 (Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson, Printer [etc.], 1855). Volume 1, page 67. Volume prepared by Isaac I. Stevens.

[42] Robert Taft, Artists and Illustrators of the Old West, 1850-1900 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982), 5.

[43] United States. War Dept., Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853-[6], 151.

[44] From the Preface of Stanley’s Smithsonian 1852 publication, Portraits of North American Indians, with Sketches of Scenery.

[45] Kane, Paul Kane's Frontier; Including Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, by Paul Kane. Edited with a Biographical Introd. And a Catalogue Raisonne by J. Russell Harper, 24. Letter September 2, 1847.

[46] James Gilchrist Swan, Almost out of the World; Scenes from Washington Territory: The Strait of Juan De Fuca, 1859-61. Edited and with Notes and an Introd. By William A. Katz (Tacoma: Washington State Historical Society, 1971), xii. In Introduction by William A. Katz.

[47] John Meares, Voyages Made in the Years 1788 and 1789, from China to the North West Coast of America : To Which Are Prefixed, an Introductory Narrative of a Voyage Performed in 1786, from Bengal, in the Ship Nootka; Observations on the Probable Existence of a North West Passage; and Some Account of the Trade between the North West Coast of America and China; and the Latter Country and Great Britain / by John Meares, Esp, (London : Printed at the Logographic Press, 1790). Swan’s annotation on page 172.

[48] James Gilchrist Swan, The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years' Residence in Washington Territory (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1857), 214. See passage pages 213-215.

[49] Lucile Saunders McDonald, "A Woman Artist in Early-Day N.W.," The Seattle Times, January 28 1951, 4.

[50] "Display of Local Artists Praised," Seattle Times, June 6 1909. A copy of this article can be found in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Scrapbook 8-SP, page 108.

[51] See Lynn McAllister, "Stirrings of Modernism in the Northwest," in Modernism & Beyond: Women Artists of the Pacific Northwest, ed. Laura Brunsman and Ruth Askey (New York: Midmarch Arts Press, 1993). and Martha Kingsbury, Celebrating Washington's Art : An Essay on 100 Years of Art in Washington (Olympia, Wash.: Washington Centennial Commission, 1989). for brief introductions to the Puget Sound region’s visual culture at the turn of the 20th Century.

[52] The advent of photography profoundly changed the use of art as record. As a readier means of depiction, it was the favored way of illustrating the Alaska-Yukon Gold Rush, beginning in 1896. With the exceptions of Sydney Laurence (1865-1940) and E. B. Brown, nearly all memoirs and promotional materials published about the gold rush included photographs, with the occasional inclusion of often unattributed engravings.

[53] Martha Kingsbury, "Seattle and the Puget Sound," in Art of the Pacific Northwest: From the 1930's to the Present (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974), 41.

[54] Reprinted in John William Reps, Views and Viewmakers of Urban America : Lithographs of Towns and Cities in the United States and Canada, Notes on the Artists and Publishers, and a Union Catalog of Their Work, 1825-1925 (Columbia : University of Missouri Press, 1984), 68. The Seattle Post Intelligencer, July 15, 1884, page 2, column 2. Quotation relates to E.S. Glover’s bird’s-eye view of Seattle.

[55] Adapted from John William Reps, Panoramas of Promise : Pacific Northwest Cities and Towns on Nineteenth-Century Lithographs (Pullman, Wash. : Washington State University Press, 1984), 19.

[56] Ibid., 9. Quotation originally appeared in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 15, 1884, page 2, column 2.

[57] Ibid. Quotation originally appeared in the Victoria Colonist, October 16, 1878, page 3.

[58] Some of the biographical information is adapted from Reps, Views and Viewmakers of Urban America : Lithographs of Towns and Cities in the United States and Canada, Notes on the Artists and Publishers, and a Union Catalog of Their Work."

[59] John E. Chilberg, "The Organization and Management of the Business of the Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposition of 1909," (1953), 2. A copy of this work can be found in the Records of the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition.

[60] Seattle and the Pacific Northwest: Washington, Oregon, California, Alaska, British Columbia, Yukon, and A.-Y.-P. Hotel and Commercial Guide, (Seattle, Wash.: Seattle Pub. Co., 1909).

[61] Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition Dept. of Fine Arts, Official Catalogue of the Department of Fine Arts, Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, Seattle, Washington, ([Seattle?]: A.-Y.-P. Pub. Co., 1909), 4.

[62] "Fine Arts Exhibit Is Nearly Ready," 1909, Scrapbook 7-SP, page 134.

[63] Report of the Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposition Commission of the State of Washington, (Seattle: Pacific Press, 1910), 129-30.

[64] Isabel H. Raymond, "Women's Work at the Exposition," Westerner: the Truth about the West 10, no. 5 (1909): 30-31.

[65] United States. Government Board of Managers Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, Participation in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition. Message from the President of the United States, Transmitting the Report of the United States Government Board of Managers of the Government Participation in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, (Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1911), 68.

[66] "A Statue to James J. Hill," Westerner: the Truth about the West 10, no. 2 (1909).

[67] Bill Holm, Spirit and Ancestor: A Century of Northwest Coast Indian Art at the Burke Museum (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987). Holm discusses this purchase in pages 15-17. Thanks to Robin Wright for this reference.

[68] In 1958, Raymond's daughter bequeathed both of these to the Seattle Art Museum, which de-accessioned them nearly 100 years after they were first displayed at the AYP. That Which the Sea Gives Up, sold at Sotheby’s 29 Nov 2006, lot 184. Autumn Clearing, sold at Sotheby’s 8 March 2007, lot 104.